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Understanding Initial Public Offering (IPO) – The Path to Growth and Investment


Welcome to Sapphire Academy’s blog series, where we demystify the world of finance. In this edition, we’ll explore Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) – a significant milestone for companies and investors alike. IPOs open doors to growth opportunities and provide a means for investors to participate in a company’s success. Let’s delve into this exciting realm and uncover the potential it holds.

What is an IPO?

An Initial Public Offering (IPO) marks the transition of a privately-owned company into a publicly-traded one. Through an IPO, a company offers its shares to the public for the first time, enabling it to raise capital by selling a portion of its ownership. This infusion of funds can fuel expansion plans, research and development, and debt repayment.


Rationale behind an IPO

Companies choose to go public for various reasons. One key motive is to raise substantial capital to support growth initiatives. For instance, technology giant Facebook raised approximately $16 billion through its IPO in 2012, facilitating its global expansion and acquisitions. Going public also enhances a company’s visibility, attracting more customers, partners, and talented employees. Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba’s IPO in 2014 not only raised $25 billion but also cemented its position as a global player.

The IPO Process

The IPO process involves several crucial steps. Firstly, the company selects underwriters, typically investment banks, to manage the offering. These underwriters assist in determining the initial offering price and facilitate the sale of shares. The company then undergoes due diligence, compiling information into a prospectus for potential investors. The prospectus discloses financials, business models, risks, and growth prospects.

Pricing and allocation are determined in collaboration with the underwriters, considering market conditions and investor demand. Prior to the IPO, the company embarks on a roadshow to present the investment opportunity to potential buyers. Once successfully completed, the company’s shares are listed on a stock exchange, allowing investors to buy and sell them on the open market.

Investor Considerations

Participating in an IPO can offer early access to potential high-growth companies and the opportunity to benefit from their success. However, it is essential to consider associated risks. Early-stage price volatility, limited historical performance data, and potential overvaluation are factors to assess. For instance, Snap Inc.’s IPO in 2017 faced concerns over user growth and competition, impacting its stock price initially.



IPOs present an exciting gateway for companies and investors, facilitating growth and offering investment opportunities. Facebook, Alibaba, and Snap Inc. are examples of companies that successfully harnessed the potential of IPOs. As you navigate the world of finance, understanding the IPO process and carefully evaluating investment opportunities is key. Stay tuned for more insightful articles from Sapphire Academy as we continue to unravel the intricacies of the financial landscape.

About the Author: Smaa Khalid

Hi, I'm Smaa Khalid, a post-graduate in Clinical Psychology and a writer with over 4 years of experience. I'm passionate about exploring and understanding human behaviors and creating insightful content on a variety of topics. As a writer, I'm committed to deliver accurate and engaging content that is accessible to a wide audience. I believe that promoting awareness is crucial and my work reflects this belief. Through my writing, I hope to inspire readers to take proactive steps towards improving their understanding of themselves and the world around them.

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